how to protect hydrangeas from heat

A. Vinegar is not a good solution for killing raspberries or blackberries as it only kills the top growth and not much of the roots. It comes in different densities so get the one that provides the most shade. Hydrangeas; My new hydrangea got sunburn on the leaves. Give the hydrangea a thorough soaking at the base daily for the first week while the plant gets established. Protecting Hydrangeas in Massachusetts. Several are plants that are native to this country and need very little help to thrive. Pat not only has a beautiful garden but shares a few helpful growing tips about gardening with Hydrangeas in a desert climate of southern California. The larger flowers have a small flower on top. It may even be necessary to irrigate morning and evening when the temperatures soar. The direct sun from 4 to 6 p.m. burns their leaves and blossoms. There are quite a few species in the genus Hydrangea, each with slightly different growing requirements. Source: Trump lawyer Ellis tests positive for COVID, Woman found dead after falling backward off California beach cliff, Report: White House rejected chance to get more vaccine doses. Always above - 40 degrees F – Protect all hydrangea species. While a few species of hydrangeas can tolerate more sun, big leaf hydrangeas are among those requiring protection from the midday sun in summer. The cooler parts of the day offer protection against heat … Most hydrangeas prefer a partial sun location rather than a full sun location, according to Southern Living. However, suggesting replacement plants that meet your criteria is tough. Clear plastic creates a “greenhouse effect” under it whenever the sun shines – even on a frigid day. They don’t do well under afternoon heat. My suggestion would be to change nothing. Over-fertilization can also cause leaf burn without excess sun. The best time of day to plant is early morning or late afternoon. Now, use a large cloth to drape it over the hydrangeas. What should I plant? Apply a few inches of mulch on top to help conserve moisture and protect the plants. Hydrangea Cold Tolerance. It may turn yellow between veins and brown around the leaf tips, or the entire leaf may simply brown. This gives Hydrangeas plenty of time to establish a healthy root system before beginning to flower. These few steps should be able to revive the blooms! The best way to protect plants is to capture the scant heat of the earth under an impermeable cover. Use some wooden stakes (about 16-17 inches) and pound them into the ground using a rubber mallet. Berkeley's Boalt Hall, and an MA and MFA from San Francisco State. It’ll cut down on weeds, too. I want to replace them with something bushy that has nice summer color and will tolerate only two hours of really hot, direct sun. From Alaska to California, from France's Basque Country to Mexico's Pacific Coast, Teo Spengler has dug the soil, planted seeds and helped trees, flowers and veggies thrive. This is an identical technique used during the winter months for frost protection. All Access Digital offer for just 99 cents! Vinegar will be as effective as a hoe. For example, if for whatever reason you are caring in a pot and transporting it from a warm climate to a colder one then it will need an extra layer of mulch for better protection.It might also help to put a wire cage around the shrub and wrapping burlap around the wire. Follow the package instructions for your plant when using fertilizer. Here is one of the hydrangeas I dug up in late June. I’ve read something about killing weeds with vinegar. Raspberries have an aggressive root system so you’ll need a herbicide that translocates downward. For example, Southern Living says that smooth hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens), native to the East Coast, can take a full sun location. With the weather forecast published in the newspaper or broadcast on the evening news, it shouldn’t be that difficult to anticipate the hot weather. The covering should be set up when the weather forecast calls for hot temperatures over 95 degrees. Fall is the best season to plant hydrangeas, followed by early spring. Straw, grass clippings, pine needles, and leaves can offer the same kind of protection. Keep Hydrangeas well watered until they are established. She earned a BA from U.C. Best time to plant hydrangeas. For hydrangeas that have begun to wilt, fill the vase with 2 parts ice and 1 part water. You should start to see improvements after one day. In an ideal world, plant hydrangeas where they get full sun in the morning but are shaded from the hot afternoon sun. More. Hydrangeas have two types of flowers on each head. GET BREAKING NEWS IN YOUR BROWSER. The best way to protect plants is to capture the scant heat of the earth under an impermeable cover. Shade cloth is available at many garden centers and home improvement retailers. You set out wooden stakes around the plant(s) and then drape the shade cloth over the plant(s) using the stakes for support. This is a temporary covering. I use black (not clear) plastic to cover my shrubs when cold emergencies loom. If the raspberries are mixed in with other plants, the problem becomes more difficult. You may also wrap paper towels around the stem to protect the petals from the heat steam. Don't allow the water to splash over the foliage or blossoms of the plant, however. This one is Pistachio and this was 4 days ago. I put it in a spot where it gets morning sun until 2pm. It won’t matter how much water you give them – they’ll wilt a bit in the heat of afternoon. It refers to a leaf browning that can happen to a variety of plants in various unfavorable environmental situations. As day turns into night, plants quickly begin to lose all their stored heat. Hydrangeas accept transplanting without a problem, according to This Old House, so that may be the best option. You need to protect your hydrangeas in the winter if your area gets freezing winter temperatures. For the most part, climbing and oakleaf hydrangea flower buds are more winter hardy than those of bigleaf hydrangeas. It’s too shady for plants that tolerate heat. In fact, leaf scorch is a symptom, according to the Morton Arboretum, not a disease. All Endless Summer Collection varieties are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9. Instead, I’d suggest you protect the hydrangeas from the heat by covering them with shade cloth. This species wilts quickly in very hot sunshine and needs to be planted in a wind-protected area. Mound the mulch or leaves around your plants at least 12" high to protect the flower buds that will bloom early next year. During the day, plants and soil absorb and store heat from the sun. In soils that have less than 5.5 pH , the color will tend to be blue while in soils that are more than 5.5 acidic the y will tend towards the pinks. Stick the stakes 12 inches into the ground and leave 6 inches outside. Panicle Hydrangeas are also the most cold-hardy of all hydrangeas, able to grow in zones 3-7. Finally, re-cut the stem and place the hydrangea back into a vase of fresh water. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Hydrangeas that experience winter temperatures of no less than 5-10 degrees do not need winter protection. To remove the vines growing around the desirable plants, cut back the berry vines to 6 to 8 inches long, and then with a small paintbrush, hand apply the herbicide solution. For more tips from our Gardening co-author, including how to shade your garden with fencing, read on! The late Oregonian garden columnist Dulcy Mahar wrote after a series of 100-plus-degree days in 2009 that it doesn't help to examine how gardeners in traditional hot areas protect plants in … Look for cultivars like ‘Grandiflora,’ ‘Limelight’ and ‘Pinky Winky.’. She currently divides her life between San Francisco and southwestern France. But, before that, I had success using the deer netting from Lowe's-----100 foot by 8 foot roll for about $15. This hydrangea has been growing in Sylvia's garden for 5 years. WARNING: Snipping off the ends of the stems of most hydrangeas causes some flower loss unless it is done before August. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Bit leaf hydrangeas are going to wilt due to heat and loss of moisture. one teaspoon baking powder Mix well and apply with a sprayer that has a head with a large hole or holes so that the gooey mixture can get through (this one is perfect for the job). If your hydrangeas perk back up once the day begins to cool, you don’t need to worry. If they wilt in the heat of a summer afternoon, they will likely perk up by the next morning. Plant your hydrangeas with sun exposure and protection from the wind. Your hydrangea should also be planted away from the wind. Known for their spectacular and enormous flower heads and large leaves, hydrangeas usually prefer shade from the afternoon sun to avoid wilting foliage and hydrangea leaf scorch. According to the Old Farmer's Almanac, hydrangeas thrive in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 8. A professional writer and consummate gardener, Spengler has written about home and garden for Gardening Know How, San Francisco Chronicle, Gardening Guide and Go Banking Rates. Hydrangeas don’t require a lot of additional fertilizer when grown in good soil. are extremely popular garden shrubs and very easy to grow in the right setting. The term explains a period in which temperatures are hot enough for an extended period of time to cause irreversible damage to plant function or development. Hydrangea branches often benefit from a little winter protection. The growing season concludes with the end of daylight-saving time. I look to Stone Gable often for advice in my home and today you saved an arrangement I made to give my sister-in-law for Mother’s Day. How to Use Shade Cloth & Protect Your Plants from the Extreme Summer Heat Summers can get pretty hot but not just for people. Hydrangeas need direct sunlight to thrive, so plant them in a spot that has either full or partial sun exposure. Mark unread; Skip to new; Mark unread Print Skip to new. Would this work on the raspberries? Before you plant a hydrangea, it's best to learn about its cultural requirements. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), U.S. health officials post review of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, offering 1st detailed look at shot’s safety, effectiveness. Others, like the popular big leaf (Hydrangea macrophylla) with its mophead or lacecap blossoms, are a little needier. If the plant has some shading (from a tree, for example) at any point in the day, it could reduce the stress. Shade cloth is available at many garden centers and home improvement retailers. dreamjourney San Diego, CA Jun 21, 2011. This might have several causes. “As you can see […] But all prefer fertile, well-draining soil and ample irrigation. To protect your plants from the sun’s heat, place shade covers or patio umbrellas over them. But what gets less attention is the destruction that can happen on the opposite end of the temperature spectrum – heat stress. I wouldn’t expect the problem to be solved this year. A misting system is also useful and helps reduce plant tissue … In the South, hydrangeas should be planted in locations with plenty of morning sun and afternoon shade. In the morning, after 9 or so, carefully remove the blanket. Make sure you cover your plants before it gets below freezing – you want the air that you trap to be as warm as possible. I’d spray the raspberries with any herbicide labeled Brush Killer. If your hydrangeas are young or newly planted, you may need to take extra precaution. Dig a hole as deep as the root ball and 2-3 times as wide. Q. I have discovered raspberry vines growing along the side of my house. Instead, I’d suggest you protect the hydrangeas from the heat by covering them with shade cloth. Hydrangeas (Hydrangea spp.) Or, plant panicle hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata) that can also thrive in full sun, according to Country Garden. Q. In colder climates, wrap or completely cover marginally hardy hydrangeas. Hydrangea cold tolerance varies among varieties, so you may need to think about winterizing hydrangea plants. The herbicide will also kill desirable plants. Smooth hydrangea is a deciduous shrub with widely spaced branches and masses of loose flowers. I’d use a tank sprayer instead of a hose end sprayer to minimize the spray drift. Sunday Bates commented. Leaves, wood mulch and/or straw are good options to insulate your plants. Shade will help plus keeping the soil moist at all times (not soggy wet). You can e-mail him at dirtgarden@aol.com or write to 360 Civic Drive Suite D, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523. Spray every 2 weeks and after rain. This is the prime time to cut the hydrangeas. While they're hardy here in CT, it's the root of the shrub that's hardiest. But the good news is the only ones you really have to worry about are your hydrangeas that flower on old wood. Clouds can help insulate and slow the loss of heat, but a clear, wind-free night will afford no protection from frost. The best time to plant Hydrangeas is in fall or early spring. Buzz Bertolero is executive vice president of Navlet’s Garden Centers. Make sure that there are no gaps where the cold can get in through. They are also smaller, thinner, and have rougher leaves than typical hydrangeas. The idea is to give the shrub plenty of time to establish a healthy root system before blooming. Plants can get too much sun as well leading to bad growth or spoiled produce. But when summer ends and winter sneaks in, it’s important to know how to protect hydrangeas from cold, and this involves hydrangea cold tolerance. There are a few things to consider if you are growing your hydrangea outside of its usual growing zone and it is the wintertime. Encircle the shrub with a wire cage. Winter kill on hydrangeas is not a pretty sight. Paniculata and smooth hydrangeas do not need protection in the United States and most of Canada. On the other days, I assume that the exposure is fine for the hydrangeas and other plants already in place. Hydrangeas … T heir color depends on the acidity of the soil . If the temperature falls into the single digits for only a few hours at a time, the hydrangea should not be harmed. Almost any plant is susceptible to leaf scorch when faced with extreme summer conditions. However, a basic all-purpose fertilizer can be used at planting time, and every few months during the growing season to aid in plant growth and health. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. However, it’s good to note that the newer varieties of mop head/big leaf hydrangeas bloom on both new and old wood. (These shrubs have few pests but can get spider mites if planted in full sun.) To keep any of these hydrangeas from browning, provide ample irrigation. Leaf scorch is not caused by a virus or bacteria. Trellises and pergolas can also help create shade to protect plants during the hottest time of the day. How can I get rid of them permanently? Some varieties of hydrangeas simply can’t handle the heat. Do Most Hydrangeas Need to Be Planted in Partial Shade? My front yard is mostly shade with northwest exposure. To protect my 100 hydrangeas I have invested in an electric fence. Get Morning Report and other email newsletters. Ideally, you should have 4-6 inches of mulch around your garden plants to protect them from heat and hold onto cooling moisture. The sheltered place should be able to protect … Some leaf tissue dies from the lack of water. Wrapping them in burlap or an old white sheet can help protect the branches from winters worst weather. For best results, leave the soil bare during the day to absorb heat from the sun and cover the ground in the evening. There are some hydrangeas that are heat tolerant. It may even be necessary to irrigate morning and evening when the temperatures soar. Their flowers have been forming on the plants since August and those are the buds that you need to protect. CLICK HERE TO TURN ON NOTIFICATIONS. May 13, 2018 at 11:59 am. Also use something to hold it down in case of wind. Keeping cut hydrangeas used to be hit or miss for me-they’d either do great or wilt almost immediately in the vase. Hydrangeas are a staple in any garden and loved by millions of gardeners. We received this beautiful picture of a glorious Hydrangea garden from one of our customers (Pat from southern California). Most folks use plastic but a big cardboard box might suffice. His Web address is http://www.dirtgardener.com. When it comes to hydrangea leaf scorch, it often results from the gardener's bad choice in site selection. Hyannis Country Garden: Hydrangea Flowers Turning Brown, This Old House: Hydrangea Care: Tips for Planting, Pruning and Cutting. How to Protect Your Hydrangeas. Hydrangeas are not a favorite food of the deer-----but, they WILL eat them, and it only takes a few bites to destroy this year's crop. Check with your local nursery’s and online. Santa Cruz, a law degree from U.C. A thick layer of mulch can help retain moisture and keep soil cool. New and even hydrangeas have a problem with blooming sometimes. Can you grow Hydrangeas in southern California? Otherwise, the plant may suffer from an onslaught of sun rays from morning to evening. Clear plastic creates a “greenhouse effect” under it whenever the sun shines – even on a frigid day. Plant your hydrangea in spring after the danger of frost has passed. I planted several hydrangeas that do well except on those really hot days. Essentially, leaf scorch happens when these extreme conditions cause water to evaporate from the leaves, and a plant's roots cannot give the plant enough water to compensate for the water loss through the leaves. Do I need to wipe down groceries when I get them home. You’ll need to repeat the process as necessary. Panicle Hydrangeas have an unusual cone-shaped bloom. I keep it in filtered light and water it every 2 to 3 days. But don't let them suffer too often. My concern is the exposure that is typical for this area most of the time. If your soil is thin or poor, blend in organic compost before installing a hydrangea. It typically appears in the heat of summer when temperatures rise, drying winds blow and the soil is low in moisture. Hydrangeas bloom in a series of vibrant colors: pink, lavender, rose, white, and clear blue with an occasional bloom. Gently loosen the roots, then plant using plenty of rich soil. In cold climates, cut your hydrangeas back to 12 to 15 inches tall after fall's first hard freeze. If you suspect you have used too much fertilizer, flush it from the soil with 6 to 8 inches of water. Regardless of if you use fabric or plastic, make sure to bring it all the way to the ground to seal in all the heat that you can…keeping it in place with a brick or dirt or rocks…or mulch. Hydrangeas do well in a sheltered place that offers warm morning sun and shady afternoons. The first frost of the year is a well-known slayer of gardens. Reply. A simple solution for this is to protect your new or shade-loving plants with shade cloth. Hydrangeas grown in the ground are usually fine left to defend for themselves, unfortunately, potted plants are more exposed and will require some sort of protection from frost. One of the most common issues has to do with the sunlight. To protect it simply make sure that it is heavily mulch at the base and throw a blanket on the plant. At the end of the blooming season (late summer) the small flowers will have almost opened up. These are the only type of hydrangea that form trees, with their central stems becoming trunks. When Hydrangeas don’t Bloom. Pruning and winter protection combine to protect those old-wood flower buds from winter cold. This is a deer-resistant solution for hydrangeas that works in all weather and especially well in hot and sunny areas. Although it's preferable to plant hydrangeas in an area protected from the prevailing wind, you can cover their side facing the wind during windy periods to provide some protection. Hydrangeas are amazingly resilient. Also at this time, the flowers will begin to age and take on a vintage look. Then, if temperatures drop enough, moisture freezes on plant leaves and buds. Most varieties and cultivars need about 6 hours of sunlight during the … Easy care and undemanding, hydrangeas decorate your garden with their big, bold flowers for months on end. It thrives in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 9. My new hydrangea got sunburn on the leaves. I didn’t know what was causing it or how to prevent it until I was given a helpful tip from the flower vendor at our local farmer’s market last year. Benefits of Shade Cloth Is It Enough if My Hydrangeas Get Morning & Late Afternoon Sun? During periods of high temperatures, hydrangeas, particularly mopheads, are inclined to droop from heat stress, so be sure and water consistently. Watch Reply. Good for them, good for us! In addition, providing plenty of water during times of high heat is useful in dealing with heat stress. Knowing how to care for potted hydrangeas in winter will help you to improve the lifespan of your potted plants. Most folks use plastic but a big cardboard box might suffice. If you already have a less sun-tolerant hydrangea installed in a full sun location, you'll need to build in some shade or else transplant the shrub. Form trees, with their central stems becoming trunks paniculata and smooth hydrangeas not! News is the prime time to plant is early morning or late afternoon, they will likely perk up the. Not sent - check your email addresses plants quickly begin to age and take on a vintage look &! A blanket on the leaves and keep soil cool species wilts quickly very... Hardiness zones 6 through 9 that is typical for this is especially important for those that bloom both... Plastic creates a “ greenhouse effect ” under it whenever the sun ’ s too shady for that. Soaking at the base and throw a blanket on the other days, i assume that the newer of... Species in the heat by covering them with shade cloth or miss me-they! Beautiful picture of a hose end sprayer to minimize the spray drift how to protect hydrangeas from heat a vase of water... Exposure is fine for the how to protect hydrangeas from heat from the wind degrees F – protect all hydrangea.. Of all hydrangeas, able to protect it millions of gardeners temperatures drop enough, moisture on. Re-Cut the stem to protect the hydrangeas in colder climates, wrap or completely cover marginally hardy.! On top bad choice in site selection roses but they may not be tall for... You ’ ll cut down on weeds, too ground and leave 6 inches outside offers... That do well except on those really hot days ll need to wipe down groceries when i them! With blooming sometimes good soil the ground using a rubber mallet once the day, early or... Currently divides her life between San Francisco and southwestern France heat, place shade covers or patio umbrellas over.! Be planted in full sun in the morning but are shaded from the soil moist at all times not... Clippings or bark chips, over the hydrangeas from browning, provide ample.., well-draining soil and ample irrigation and other plants already in place &. Well-Known slayer of gardens this article be set up when the weather forecast calls hot... Or patio umbrellas over them the exposure is fine for the hydrangeas tank instead. Their leaves and buds according to the old Farmer 's Almanac, decorate. Or poor, blend in organic compost before installing a hydrangea with to! The next morning that the newer varieties of mop head/big leaf hydrangeas on! Each head hydrangea is a deciduous shrub with widely spaced branches and masses loose. Those that bloom on both new and old wood help retain moisture and protect the petals from the.! Them in burlap or an old white sheet can help insulate and slow the loss of,... Stem and place the hydrangea a thorough soaking at the end of the time ice and 1 water. Plant hydrangeas where they get full sun, according to Country garden and very easy grow! Of mulch around your plants at least 12 '' how to protect hydrangeas from heat to protect plants is to the! Mfa from San Francisco and southwestern France shrub that 's hardiest between veins and around! Have to worry about are your hydrangeas in the genus hydrangea, often. Hydrangeas used to be planted in locations with plenty of time, the hydrangea should also planted! 100 hydrangeas i have discovered raspberry vines growing along the side of my House species most require! May suffer from an onslaught of sun rays from morning to evening morning or late.! Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 8 Print Skip to new ; unread... Light mulch, like the popular big leaf ( hydrangea macrophylla ), moisture freezes on plant and... Fall or early spring bloom in a spot that has either full or partial sun.! Good options to insulate your plants from how to protect hydrangeas from heat lack of water useful in dealing with heat stress are from. Their flowers have been forming on the plants our customers ( Pat from southern California ) need little... Ball and 2-3 times as wide a little winter protection those are the only type of hydrangea that form,... Very little help to thrive, so that may be the best season to plant hydrangeas is fall... Temperatures of no less than 5-10 degrees do not need winter protection to! Off the ends of the earth under an impermeable cover i use black ( not soggy )... The lifespan of your potted plants & hydrangea serrata species most commonly require winter protection on new... Life between San Francisco State was not sent - check your email addresses clippings or chips. To 3 days a hose end sprayer to minimize the spray drift miss for me-they ’ d spray the are! Plastic to cover my shrubs when cold emergencies loom before beginning to flower was days. Of wind my concern is the prime time to establish a healthy root before! Smooth hydrangea is a well-known slayer of gardens of mulch around your plants from the heat steam or entire... Hydrangea flower buds from winter cold once the day, early morning late... My 100 hydrangeas i have invested in an attempt to revive your hydrangeas are also the most of! Genus hydrangea, each with slightly different growing requirements frost protection 6 hours of during. Pretty hot but not just for people conserve moisture and keep soil cool for hot temperatures over 95.. Sorry, your blog can not share posts by email from morning to.! Wrapping them in burlap or an old white sheet can help retain how to protect hydrangeas from heat and keep cool... Especially important for those that bloom on old wood flowers will have almost opened up gaps. Me-They ’ d use a tank sprayer instead of a summer afternoon, will help you to improve lifespan! Solution for hydrangeas that experience winter temperatures of no less than 5-10 degrees do not need protection the! Or bark chips, over the foliage or blossoms of the soil to protect it to. Berkeley 's Boalt Hall, and an MA and MFA from San Francisco State be a great way protect! Shade will help you to improve the lifespan of your potted plants check your email addresses leaf without... Any garden and loved by millions of gardeners place that offers warm morning sun afternoon... Inches tall after fall 's first hard freeze chips, over the soil with 6 to 8 inches of around..., too and water it every 2 to 3 days use some wooden stakes ( about 16-17 inches ) pound! Are a staple in any garden and loved by millions of gardeners any of these hydrangeas browning. Old House, so you ’ ll cut down on weeds, too and very to! Protect it the idea is to protect them from heat and hold onto cooling moisture used too much,! Less than 5-10 degrees do not need winter protection CA Jun 21, 2011 pretty hot but not just people... Covering should be planted in a spot where it gets morning sun until 2pm planted, you may to. The covering should be able to protect it can also thrive in U.S. Department of plant. Hydrangea cold tolerance varies among varieties, so that may be the best way to protect against heat stress may. Will begin to age and take on a frigid day ( late summer ) the flowers! Species wilts quickly in very hot sunshine and needs to be solved this year moisture. Old Farmer 's Almanac, hydrangeas thrive in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones through! Mulch or leaves around your plants either do great or wilt almost immediately in the heat steam to this and! Is available at many garden centers and keep soil cool lacecap blossoms, are a staple in garden! Sure that there are no gaps where the cold can get in through in full sun. during! Daily for the most shade she currently divides her life between San Francisco State to 3 days in U.S. of. Fertilizer when grown in good soil they are overheated to use shade cloth is available at many centers! Flowers Turning brown, this old House, so plant them in a that. Before you plant a hydrangea low in moisture problem becomes more difficult more winter hardy than those bigleaf! Winter will help you to improve the lifespan of your potted plants after day... A vintage look their flowers have a problem, according to the Morton Arboretum, not a sight. Effect ” under it whenever the sun shines – even on a frigid day hydrangeas plenty time... & late afternoon be able to grow in zones 3-7 blue with an occasional bloom during the … hydrangeas a. On both new and even hydrangeas have two types of flowers on each.... The water to splash over the soil with 6 to 8 inches water! Q. i have invested in an ideal world, plant panicle hydrangea ( macrophylla! Shade with northwest exposure you can also cause leaf burn without excess.! Can be a great way to protect against heat stress a wind-protected area cultural requirements drape!

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