welding types and definitions

Element – A substance which can’t be broken down into two other substances. Atom – The smallest particle of an element that posses all of the characteristics of that element. We buy ANY used medium to heavy duty welding or cutting equipment. Welding Symbol – A graphical representation of a weld. Slag – The brittle mass that forms over the weld bead on welds made with coated electrodes, flux cored electrodes, submerged arc welding and other slag producing welding processes. Joint Root – That portion of a joint to be welded where the members approach closes to each other. Convex Fillet Weld – A fillet weld having a convex face. Fusion Zone – It is made up of ultra-hard, needlelike crystals that are a supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron. Designed by OneLine Designs, Privacy Policy | Matrix – The principal, physically continuous metallic constituent in which crystals or free atoms of other constituents are embedded. Quench / Quenching – Process of fast-cooling metals or alloys such as steel in the process of hardening, as air quenching, oil quenching, water quenching, etc. The increased velocity produces 10–15% higher cutting speeds. Learn how your comment data is processed. Following are all the other base welding symbols which are not butt welds, including the fillet symbol. Temper – (1) The amount of carbon present in the steel: 10 temper is 1.00% carbon. Wrought Iron – A commercial form of iron that is tough, malleable, and relatively soft; less than 0.3% carbon. Stainless steel is considered a high alloy because it contains in excess of 10% chromium. What are the Different Welding Types and What are They Used for. In high chromium alloys, the affinity (attraction) of chromium and carbon for each other leads to the formation of a thin inter-granular layer of chromium carbides. Friction is frequently used in aerospace applications as it is ideal for joining otherwise 'non-weldable' light-weight aluminium alloys. Pressure can also be used to produce a weld, either alongside the heat or by itself. This distance influences melt-off rate, penetration, and weld bead shape. Friction welding techniques join materials using mechanical friction. As Cast Structures – The crystalline structure before stress relief through rolling or hammer forging. Post Weld Heat Treatment – Reheating the weldment to 1100°F to 1350°F after welding and holding at that temperature for a specified length of time. 3-2) is used to designate the type of weld to be made, its location, dimensions, extent, contour, and other supplementary information. Slope Control reduces the short circuiting current each time the electrode touches the weld puddle. No metal is actually cut. Phase Transformation – The changes in the crystalline structure of metals caused by temperature and time. Root Penetration – The distance the weld metal extends into the joint root. Carbide – The chemical combination of carbon with some other element. It is an alloy that contains iron and 2% of other elements. Chip Test – A test used to identify a metal. Insulator – A material which has a tight electron bond, that is, relatively few electrons which will move when voltage (electrical pressure) is applied. Spiral Arc Welding (SAW) – arc welding process / procedure used in the pipe industry. Crack is caused by shrinkage of the hot weld metal as it cools, placing the root bead under tension. This category includes a number of common manual, semi-automatic and automatic processes. ft. Full Annealing – Heating of steels or iron alloys to above their critical temperature range, soaking at the annealing temperature until they are transformed to a uniform austenitic structure, followed by cooling at a predetermined rate, depending upon the type of alloy and structure required; in general the cooling rate is relatively slow. SAW involves the formation of an arc between a continuously fed electrode and the workpiece. Level Wound – Spooled or coiled filler metal that has been wound in distinct layers such that adjacent turns touch. Cold Drawing – Reducing the cross-section of a metal by pulling it through a die while its temperature is below the re-crystallization temperature. Shear – A force which causes deformation or fracture of a member by sliding one section against another in a plane or planes which are substantially parallel to the direction of the force. (This process is frequently called TIG welding.). Sometimes called the “amount of wire in resistance”. Work Hardening – The capacity of a material to harden as the result of cold rolling or other cold working involving deformation of the metal such as forming, bending, or drawing. The result of such a peak output produces a spray arc below the typical transition current. Adopted during the 1970’s, “ferrite number” is not to be confused with “Percent Ferrite” that is still used in some cases. Have a question? Wetting – The phenomenon whereby a liquid filler metal or flux spreads and adheres in a thin continuous layer on a solid base metal. Electrode Core Wire – The steel wire about which the coating is applied. MIG welding is one of the easier types of welding for beginners to learn. This process can be split into two types, resistance spot welding and resistance seam welding. Back-gouging – The removal of weld metal and base metal from the weld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and complete joint penetration upon subsequent welding from that side. Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel – The magnetic finely dispersed crystal structure in austenitic steels that causes the austenite grains to become smaller and crack resistant. Overhead stick welding. These techniques usually use a filler material and are primarily used for joining metals including stainless steel, aluminium, nickel and copper alloys, cobalt and titanium. Plastic welding: In plastic welding or pressure welding process, the pieces of metal to be joined are heated to a plastic state and then forced together by external pressure. Galling – The condition between rubbing surfaces where high spots or protrusions on a surface become friction welded to the mating surface, resulting in spalling and further deterioration. This fusion joining process uses a beam of high velocity electrons to join materials. Low Hydrogen Electrodes – Stick electrodes that have coating ingredients that are very low in hydrogen content. Maintains corrosion resistance of the stainless steel and produces good wetting and excellent weld bead shape. This reheating removes most of the residual stresses put in the weldment by the heating and cooling during welding. Plasticity – Ability of a metallic state to undergo permanent deformation without rupture. Westermans buy the widest range of used medium to heavy duty industrial welding and fabrication equipment from around the world. Submerged Arc Welding – An arc welding process that uses an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the weld pool. Mild Steel – An alloy of mostly iron with low content of alloying elements such as carbon and manganese. It passes around the nozzle and forms a shield around the arc. Oxy/Fuel Ratio – The relationship of cu. Globular – Refers to the arc transfer when you can see the globules burning off and falling into the puddle as opposed to a “smooth arc”. These welding are also known as liquid-solid welding … Shielded Metal Arc Welding. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering. TWI has one of the most definitive ranges of services. It is sometimes referred to as cold cracking, since it occurs after the weld metal has cooled. A metallic carbide takes the form of very hard crystals. Harsh – References the weld arc as being noisy, spattery or erratic. Eutectic Alloy – Alloy of a composition that solidifies at a lower temperature than the individual elements of the alloy and freezes or solidifies at a constant temperature to form a fine mixture crystals made up of two or more phases. Kerf – Opening through the plate where material is removed during the any kind of cutting operation. Metal inert gas (MIG) welding is a form of manual arc welding for heavy metals, alternately known as gas metal arc welding. All metal melted during the making of a weld and retained in the weld. Tension Test – A test in which a specimen is loaded in tension until failure occurs. Oxygen Factor – The fuel efficiency times the oxy/fuel ratio for a given fuel to determine the multiples of oxygen needed to duplicate the performance of acetylene. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas, or gas mixture. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – An arc welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. Metallurgy – The science and technology of extracting metals from their ores, refining them, and preparing them for use. Weld Crack – A crack located in the weld metal or heat affected zone. Plasma Gas – A gas directed into the torch to surround the electrode, which becomes ionized by the arc to form a plasma and issues from the torch nozzle as the plasma jet. Wire material and diameter vary with the welding application. Constant Current – (As applied to welding machines.) GMAW – ‘GMAW’ stands for ‘Gas Metal Arc Welding’, which is a term that encompasses both MIG and MAG welding. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode. Welded joint where the weld metal fully penetrates the joint with complete root fusion. Arc Length – The distance from the electrode to the attachment point on the workpiece. Lap Joint – A joint between two overlapping members in parallel planes. Metal Active Gas (MAG) Welding – Similar to Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding. Face Bend Test – A test in which the weld face is on the convex surface of a specified bend radius. Travel Angle – The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. Types of Welding Metals Steel. Contact Tube – A device that transfers current to a continuous electrode. Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding – An arc welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. Cutting Gas – A gas directed into the torch to surround the electrode, which becomes ionized by the arc to form a plasma and issues from the torch nozzle as a plasma jet. MIG welding requires the use of an inert shield gas. Slag Inclusion – A weld defect where slag is entrapped in the weld metal before it can float to the surface. Lack of Penetration – A nonstandard term for incomplete joint penetration. Can’t control where the puddle goes. Neutral Flame – An oxy/fuel gas flame that has characteristics neither oxidizing nor reducing. Induced Current or Induction – The phenomena of causing an electrical current to flow through a conductor when that conductor is subjected to a varying magnetic field. Arc. Standoff Guide – Used with plasma torches to drag cut. The metal is chipped off using a cold chisel and hammer. Crater – A depression in the weld face at the termination of a weld bead. Short Circuit Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW-S) – A gas metal arc welding process variation in which the consumable electrode is deposited during repeated short circuits. Erratic – When the arc or burn-off characteristics are not smooth and difficult to handle. Welding produces stresses in materials. Duty Cycle – A power source specification describing the percentage of time a system can be operated at a given current level. Welding is usually used on metals and thermoplastics but can also be used on wood. Alternating – An electrical current which alternately travels in either direction in a Current conductor. Welder Certification – Written verification that a welder has produced welds meeting a prescribed standard of welder performance. That flame will head to the point where the gases are mixed. Peening may decrease the ductility and impact properties; however, the next pass will nullify this condition. Incomplete Fusion – A weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads. Friction processes are used across industry and are also being explored as a method to bond wood without the use of adhesives or nails. Piercing – A method of starting a plasma arc cut in which the arc plunges into and through the workpiece before cutting begins. Carbide Precipitation – The formation of chromium carbide in austenitic stainless steel that allows inter-granular corrosion in corrosive service. Composite Electrode – A filler metal electrode used in arc welding, consisting of more than one metal component combined mechanically. Heat Treatment – Any operation involving the heating and cooling of metals or alloys. The processes are used with or without the application of pressure and with or without filler metal. Torch to Work Distance – The distance between the outer most portion of the torch and the work surface. The resulting underlying pattern in the metal is unique to several classes of ferrous metals. Equivalent terms are pulsed voltage or pulsed current welding. Every weld bead has two “toes”. Root Radius – A nonstandard term for groove radius. Binary Alloy – An alloy composed of two elements. In the US the preferred term is partial joint penetration weld (PJP). Allotropic – A material in which the atoms are capable of transforming into two or more crystalline structures at different temperatures. Not necessarily applicable when the object to be hardened has considerable thickness. Complete Fusion – Fusion over the entire fusion faces and between all adjoining weld beads. In this text the terms rutile and titania have the same significance. Spatter – Weld reinforcement opposite the side from which welding was done. Swirl Baffle – It serves is a mounting platform for the nozzle, sets up a swirling direction of the gas through the small holes in the swirl baffle and carries the electrical current to the work piece. Welding Arc – A controlled electrical discharge between the electrode and the workpiece that is formed and sustained by the establishment of a gaseous conductive medium, called an arc plasma. Chemical formula for cementite is Fe3C. Boundary between the weld metal and the HAZ in a fusion weld. Fumes – Airborne solid particulate matter generated by the welding or cutting process. Corner Joint. The manner in which the joining occurs is dependant on the exact process used, for example, friction stir welding (FSW), friction stir spot welding (FSSW), linear friction welding (LFW) and rotary friction welding (RFW). In surfacing, the weaving bead produces less dilution because the weld puddle is always in contact with the part of the bead produced on the previous oscillation rather than the base metal. Weathering Steel – Low alloy steel that is specially formulated to form a thin tightly adhering layer of rust. Less oxidation generally makes slag more difficult to remove. These types of welding electrodes are also referred to as Refractory electrodes. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) – An arc-welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. Fillet Weld Leg – The distance from the joint root to the toe of the fillet weld. If you have any questions or need help, email us to get expert advice: As opposed to brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal, welding is a high heat process which melts the base material. Strain – The physical effect of stress, usually evidenced by stretching or other deformation of the material. Typically with the addition of a filler material. (Also referred to as plasma gas or orifice gas). The coating controls the welding current, the welding position, and provides a shielding atmosphere, deoxidizers to clean the weld metal, and the welding slag that absorbs impurities from the weld metal. Pig iron – The product of the blast furnace cast into blocks convenient for handling or storage; iron alloy as recovered from the ore. A brittle material of high carbon content (5%). This type of crack is due to the high stresses involved in the cooling of a rigid structure. Arc Welding Gun – A device used to transfer current to a continuously fed consumable electrode, guide the electrode, and direct the shielding gas. This is a non-standard term for weld junction. Too high a welding current can result in undercuts, an uneven weld convexity, burn-through, thermal cracking, an inappropriate merging angle with the body material and undercutting. Preheating retards the cooling rate, allowing more time for the hydrogen to escape, which minimizes under-bead cracking. The process is used without pressure and with filler metal from the electrode and sometimes from a supplemental source (welding rod, flux, or metal granules). Smooth – The arc transfer is very consistent. It passes around the nozzle and forms a shield around the arc. Experience has shown that peening helps to reduce cracking. Complete Joint Penetration – A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal extends through the joint thickness. In addition, if unchecked, the flame may continue to migrate upstream seeking fuel/oxygen to continue burning. Titania – The synthetic form of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Based on a ten minute cycle. Consumables are usually chosen to be similar in composition to the parent material, thus forming a homogenous weld, but there are occasions, such as when welding brittle cast irons, when a filler with a very different composition and, therefore, properties is used. Electron – Negatively charged particles that revolve around the positively charged nucleus in an atom. Flux – In arc welding, fluxes are formulations that, when subjected to the arc, act as a cleaning agent by dissolving oxides, releasing trapped gases and slag and generally cleaning the weld metal by floating the impurities to the surface where they solidify in the slag covering. Uphill – Welding with an upward progression. Peening is recommended for thicker sections (over 1” or 2”) of some alloys on each successive pass. Made for screw machine products. Even if the fuel gas is shut off, with oxygen still flowing, the “guts” of the torch can continue to burn. This process uses heat to join or fuse two or more materials by heating them to melting point. Convexity – The maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes. The metal is brought into contact with a power driven, high speed grinding wheel which produce spark patterns. Electrode – The plasma arc torch part from which arc current is emitted. Face Reinforcement – Weld reinforcement on the side of the joint from which welding was done. Current (Weld) – The amount of electric charge flowing past a specified circuit point per unit time Current is the main parameter for welding and has to be chosen to plate thickness and welding speed with respect to the weld quality. Welding Technique – The details of a welding procedure that are controlled by the welder or welding operator. Acceptable Weld – A weld that meets the applicable requirements. Inert Gas – A gas, such as helium or argon, which does not chemically combine with other elements. 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